The Threshold Rate of Return may represent an acceptable rate of return above the cost of capital to entice the company to make the investment. Choosing the proper discount rate is important for an accurate Net Present Value analysis. A capital budget is a long-term plan that outlines the financial demands of an investment, development, or major purchase. As opposed to an operational budget that tracks revenue and expenses, a capital budget must be prepared to analyze whether or not the long-term endeavor will be profitable. Capital budgets are often scrutinized using NPV, IRR, and payback periods to make sure the return meets management’s expectations.

The Proﬁtability Index is a variation of the Net Present Value approach to comparing projects. Although the Proﬁtability Index does not stipulate the amount of cash return from a capital investment, it does provide the cash return per dollar invested. The index can be thought of as the discounted cash inﬂow per dollar of discounted cash outﬂow.

## Why Do Businesses Need Capital Budgeting?

Suppose the investment generates cash ﬂow payments for 15 years rather than 10. The return from the investment is much greater because there are ﬁve more years of cash ﬂows. However, the analysis does not take this into account and the Payback Period is still six years. When a firm is presented with a capital budgeting decision, one of its first tasks is to determine whether or not the project will prove to be profitable.

When the Modified Internal Rates of Return are computed, both rates of return are lower than their corresponding Internal Rates of Return. However, the rates are above the Reinvestment Rate of Return of 10 percent. As with the Internal Rate of Return, the Project with the higher Modified Internal Rate of Return will be selected if only one project is accepted. Or the modified rates may be compared to the company’s Threshold Rate of Return to determine which projects will be accepted. Both projects have a high Internal Rate of Return (Project A has the highest).

## Capital Budgeting:

The Internal Rate of Return analysis is commonly used in business analysis. As long as the initial investment is a cash outﬂow and the trailing cash ﬂows are all inﬂows, the Internal Rate of Return method is accurate. However, if the trailing cash ﬂows ﬂuctuate between positive and negative cash ﬂows, the possibility exists that multiple Internal Rates of Return may be computed. Another drawback is that both payback periods and discounted payback periods ignore the cash flows that occur towards the end of a project’s life, such as the salvage value. A Proﬁtability Index analysis is shown with two discount rates (5 and 10 percent) in Table 5. The Proﬁtability Index is positive (greater than one) with the ﬁve percent discount rate.

- If funds are limited and all positive NPV projects cannot be initiated, those with the high discounted value should be accepted.
- Each one provides a different perspective on the capital investment decision.
- To correct for this deﬁciency, the Discounted Payback Period method was created.
- However, if the trailing cash ﬂows ﬂuctuate between positive and negative cash ﬂows, the possibility exists that multiple Internal Rates of Return may be computed.

To correct for this deﬁciency, the Discounted Payback Period method was created. As shown in Figure 1, this method discounts the future cash ﬂows back to their present value so the investment and the stream of cash ﬂows can be compared at the same time period. Each of the cash ﬂows is discounted over the number of years from the time of the cash ﬂow payment to the time of the original investment. For example, the ﬁrst cash ﬂow is discounted over one year and the ﬁfth cash ﬂow is discounted over ﬁve years.

## Which of the following is a capital budgeting method, that ignores the time value of money? a….

The cash inﬂows and outﬂows over the life of the investment are then discounted back to their present values. Each of the capital budgeting methods outlined has advantages and disadvantages. But it doesn’t account for the time value of money or the value of cash flows received after the payback period. The Discounted Payback Period incorporates the time value of money but still doesn’t account for cash flows received after the payback period. The Net Present Value analysis provides a dollar denominated present value return from the investment.

This method results in analyzing how much profit is earned from each sale that can be attributable to fixed costs. Once a company has paid for all fixed costs, any throughput is kept by the entity as equity. Learn how to calculate the payback period, and understand the advantages and limitations of using this method. The payback period is concerned with the amount of time it takes for a company to recoup the amount invested for… However, Project A provides more return per dollar of investment as shown with the Proﬁtability Index ($1.26 for Project A versus $1.14 for Project B).

## What Is the Primary Purpose of Capital Budgeting?

Over the long run, capital budgeting and conventional proﬁt-and-loss analysis will lend to similar net values. However, capital budgeting methods include adjustments for the time value of money (discussed in AgDM File C5-96, Understanding the Time Value of Money). Capital investments create cash ﬂows that are often spread over several years into the future. To accurately assess the value of a capital investment, the timing of the future cash ﬂows are taken into account and converted to the current time period (present value). Unconventional cash flows are common in capital budgeting since many projects require future capital outlays for maintenance and repairs.

So only the discounting from the time of the cash ﬂow to the present time is relevant. In Table 3, a Discounted Payback Period analysis is shown using the same three projects outlined in Table 1, except the cash ﬂows are now discounted. You can see that it takes longer to repay the investment when the cash ﬂows are discounted. It should be noted that although Project A has the longest Discounted Payback Period, it also has the largest discounted total return of the three projects ($1,536). Some of the major advantages of the NPV approach include its overall usefulness and that the NPV provides a direct measure of added profitability. The internal rate of return (or expected return on a project) is the discount rate that would result in a net present value of zero.

With present value, the future cash flows are discounted by the risk-free rate such as the rate on a U.S. Treasury bond, which is guaranteed by the U.S. government, making it as safe as it gets. The future cash flows are discounted by the risk-free rate (or discount rate) because the project needs to at least earn that amount; otherwise, it wouldn’t be worth pursuing. The Profitability Index is a variation on the Net Present Value analysis that shows the cash return per dollar invested, which is valuable for comparing projects. But the company may not be able to reinvest the internal cash flows at the Internal Rate of Return.