The fixed overhead budget variance is also known as the fixed overhead spending variance. Fixed overhead volume variance is the difference between the amount budgeted for fixed overhead costs based on production volume and the amount that is eventually absorbed. This variance is reviewed as part of the cost accounting reporting package at the end of a given period.

- Volume variance is further sub-divided into efficiency variance and capacity variance.
- Other than the two points just noted, the level of production should have no impact on this variance.
- However, if the manufacturing process reaches a step cost trigger point where a whole new expense must be incurred, this can cause a significant unfavorable variance.
- The fixed overhead spending variance is the difference between the actual fixed overhead expense incurred and the budgeted fixed overhead expense.
- The fixed overhead budget variance is also known as the fixed overhead spending variance.

If you’re interested in finding out more about fixed overhead volume variance, then get in touch with the financial experts at GoCardless. Beside from its role as a balancing agent, fixed overhead volume variance does not offer more information from what can be ascertained from other variances such as sales quantity variance. Fixed overhead capacity variance is the difference between absorbed fixed production overheads attributable to the change in number of manufacturing hours, compared to what was budgeted. The New York manufacturing company estimates that its fixed manufacturing overhead expenses should be $350,000 during the upcoming period. However, the company had to make some addition investment in overhead resources and the actual expenses for the period were therefore higher than expected at $375,000. If production volume relies on the labor hours of workers and a company implements new efficient practices that reduce the number of hours needed to produce a product, more units will be made than budgeted.

## What is Fixed Overhead Volume Variance?

This variance arises due to the difference in the number of working days when the actual number of working days is greater than standard working days. To enable understanding we have worked out the illustration under the three possible scenarios of overhead being absorbed on output, input and period basis. The articles and research support materials available on this site are educational and are not intended to be investment or tax advice. All such information is provided solely for convenience purposes only and all users thereof should be guided accordingly. Our mission is to empower readers with the most factual and reliable financial information possible to help them make informed decisions for their individual needs. Finance Strategists is a leading financial literacy non-profit organization priding itself on providing accurate and reliable financial information to millions of readers each year.

The allocation rate is the expected monthly amount of fixed overhead costs divided by the number of units produced. Fixed Overhead Expenditure Variance is the difference between the budgeted fixed overhead cost and the actual fixed overhead incurred. The fixed overhead production volume variance is favorable because the company produced and sold more units than anticipated. The calculation of the sub-variances also doesn’t provide a meaningful analysis of fixed production overheads. For example, if the workforce utilized fewer manufacturing hours during a period than the standard, it is hard to imagine a significant benefit of calculating a favorable fixed overhead efficiency variance. Therefore, these variances reflect the difference between the Standard Cost of overheads allowed for the actual output achieved and the actual overhead cost incurred.

## Fixed Overhead Production Volume Variance Calculation

For example, factory rent, supervisor salaries, or factory insurance may have been lower than anticipated. Further investigation of detailed costs is necessary to determine the exact cause of the fixed overhead spending variance. The fixed overhead spending variance is the difference between the actual fixed overhead expense incurred and the budgeted fixed overhead expense. An unfavorable variance means that actual fixed overhead expenses were greater than anticipated. This is one of the better cost accounting variances for management to review, since it highlights changes in costs that were not expected to change when the fixed cost budget was formulated. An unfavorable fixed overhead budget variance results when the actual amount spent on fixed manufacturing overhead costs exceeds the budgeted amount.

Therefore, these variances reflect the difference between the standard cost of overheads allowed for the actual output achieved and the actual overhead cost incurred. Fixed Overhead Expenditure Variance, also known as fixed overhead spending variance, is the difference between budgeted and actual fixed production overheads during a period. The fixed overhead costs included in this variance tend to be only those incurred during the production process, such as factory rent, equipment depreciation, staff salaries, insurance of facilities and utility fees.

## Formulae using Inter-relationships among Variances

The factory worked for 26 days putting in 860 hours work every day and achieved an output of 2,050 units. The expenditure incurred as overheads was 49,200 towards variable overheads and 86,100 towards fixed overheads. Calculate the fixed overhead spending and production volume variances using the format shown in Figure 10.13 “Fixed Manufacturing Overhead Variance Analysis for Jerry’s Ice Cream”. Fixed overhead costs are the indirect manufacturing costs that are not expected to change when the volume of activity changes. Some examples of fixed manufacturing overhead include the depreciation, property tax and insurance of the factory buildings and equipment, and the salaries of the manufacturing supervisors and managers. An overhead cost variance is the difference between how much overhead was applied to the production process and how much actual overhead costs were incurred during the period.

Similarly, if the allocated volume is down to the number of machine hours and a company outsources some or all of its production, the budgeted amount of machine hours will be much less than expected. This type of variance is calculated separately for direct variable expenses and overhead variable expenses. We restrict our discussion to the most common measures of activity, units of output, time worked for inputs and days for periods. However, if a company is experiencing rapid changes in its production systems, it may need to revise its overhead allocation rate more frequently, say monthly. It is influenced by idle time, machine breakdown, power failure, strikes or lockouts, or shortages of materials and labor. Since the formula for this variance does not involve absorbed overhead, the basis of absorption of overhead is not a factor that influences the calculation of this variance.

## How to Calculate Fixed Overhead Spending Variance

There are a number of reasons why this can happen, aside from simply poor forecasting. If sales on a product are seasonal, production volumes on a monthly basis can fluctuate. Volume variance is further sub-divided into efficiency variance and capacity variance.

## AccountingTools

Since the calculation of fixed overhead expenditure variance is not influenced by the method of absorption used, the value of the variance would be the same in all cases. † $140,280 is the original budget presented in the manufacturing overhead budget shown in Chapter 9 “How Are Operating Budgets Created?”. The flexible budget amount for fixed overhead does not change with changes in production, so this amount remains the same regardless of actual production. Fixed overhead spending variance is an important variance for management because it indicates the cost deviations that were not expected at the time of setting standards and budgets. This is the portion of volume variance that is due to the difference between the budgeted output efficiency and the actual efficiency achieved. In problem solving the budgeted fixed cost is generally provided as a calculated figure.

## What is expenditure variance?

Fixed overhead spending variance (also known as fixed overhead budget variance and fixed overhead expenditure variance) is the difference between the actual fixed manufacturing overhead and the budgeted fixed manufacturing overhead for a period. Specifically, fixed overhead variance is defined as the difference between standard cost and fixed overhead allowed for the actual output achieved and the actual fixed overhead cost incurred. Fixed Overhead Spending Variance is calculated to illustrate the deviation in fixed production costs during a period from the budget. The variance is calculated the same way in case of both marginal and absorption costing systems.