NRV: What Net Realizable Value Is and a Formula To Calculate It

net realizable value method

But when a next-generation processor is released, the expected selling price of those PCs is likely to decline. So, the company performs an NRV analysis to compare the inventory’s value on the company’s balance sheet with its estimated NRV. If NRV is lower than the book value, the value of the PC inventory is written down and a loss from NRV is recorded on the income statement directly or as an increase in cost of goods sold. Because of accepted conservative accounting practices, a potential gain — i.e., in the event that estimated NRV is greater than book value — would never be recorded under U.S. Accounts receivable is recorded based on the terms of an invoice when goods or services are sold on credit. The FMV and initial book value of an AR are reflected in the amount of the invoice.

net realizable value method

For example, imagine two different model cars being manufactured on the same assembly line up to a certain point, before splitting off to be finished in different ways specific to their model. The costs up to the split are joint costs and the costs after the split are separable costs. NRV first calculates the selling price of each model less its separable costs. It then uses a ratio of the figures from the two models to divide up the joint costs before the split. Net realizable value is an approach to valuing assets fairly and conservatively, and is required for compliance with GAAP and IFRS.

What Is Meant by Net Realizable Value of Accounts Receivable?

NRV is an important method for ensuring that assets reported accurately to reflect the true value of the asset. This is especially true since NRV can be applied to individual assets or to entire asset classes. NetSuite Cloud Accounting Software tracks the carrying value of assets using specialized and integrated modules for inventory, accounts receivable, fixed assets and more. When NRV considerations are needed, you can be confident that the initial historical costs and all the subsequent accounting activity have been properly included in the book value.

It applies to all reporting under both Generally Accepted Accounting Principles (GAAP) and International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS). So, it’s important to understand the concept, how it is calculated and what it may mean for your financial results. GAAP rules previously required accountants to use the lower of cost or market (LCM) method to value inventory on the balance sheet. If the market price of inventory fell below the historical cost, the principle of conservatism required accountants to use the market price to value inventory. The expected selling price is calculated as the number of units produced multiplied by the unit selling price.

NRV and the lower of cost or market method

Since the cost of $50 is lower than the net realizable value of $60, the company continues to record the inventory item at its $50 cost. Different companies may be exposed to different risks and business impacts that are factored into NRV calculations differently. For example, certain industries may necessitate dealing with customers that have riskier credit profiles, thus forcing the company to experience larger write-off allowances.

  • Further, writing down inventory prevents a business from carrying forward any losses for recognition in a future period.
  • NRV is a reality check on inventory valuation by comparing FMV less selling costs to the historical costs on the books.
  • The calculation of NRV is critical because it prevents the overstatement of the assets’ valuation.
  • The FMV and initial book value of an AR are reflected in the amount of the invoice.
  • The company states that as part of its calculation of inventory, the company wrote-down $592 million.

Net realizable value (NRV) is the value for which an asset can be sold, minus the estimated costs of selling or discarding the asset. The NRV is commonly used in the estimation of the value of ending inventory or accounts receivable. This was updated in 2015 to where companies must now use the lower of cost or NRV method, which is more consistent with IFRS rules. When inventory is measured as the lower of cost or net realizable value, it is embracing the accounting principle of conservatism.


The cost is still $50, and the cost to prepare it for sale is $20, so the net realizable value is $45 ($115 market value – $50 cost – $20 completion cost). Since the net realizable value of $45 is lower than the cost of $50, ABC should record a loss of $5 on the inventory item, thereby reducing its recorded cost to $45. NRV of AR takes collectability and collection costs into account to figure out the fair market value of the AR. If NRV is less than the book value of the AR, a company must reduce the carrying value of its AR to reflect its NRV. For instance, inventory is recognized on the balance sheet at either the historical cost or the market value – whichever is lower, so companies cannot overstate the inventory’s value.

Initial sales prices are typically set above the historical costs in order to generate profits when the inventory is sold. However, changes in market conditions can make the target sale price unachievable and sometimes depress prices to levels close to or below historical costs. NRV is a reality check on inventory valuation by comparing FMV less selling costs to the historical costs on the books. It’s an unfortunate reality of business that inventory more often loses value over time instead of appreciating, thus making NRV analysis particularly relevant to inventory. NRV can be applied to any asset, although it’s most commonly used for valuing inventory and accounts receivables (AR). Changes in the FMV or selling price of inventory could cause an NRV adjustment.