(vi) Break-even

analysis is very helpful for forecasting, long-term planning, growth and

stability. Cost, Volume and Profit, which explores the relationship existing amongst Costs, Revenue, Activity Levels and the resulting Profit. There are several actions that could trigger this block including submitting a certain word or phrase, a SQL command or malformed data. Dummies has always stood for taking on complex concepts and making them easy to understand. Dummies helps everyone be more knowledgeable and confident in applying what they know. Mark P. Holtzman, PhD, CPA, is Chair of the Department of Accounting and Taxation at Seton Hall University.

Therefore, given the fixed costs, variable costs, and selling price of the water bottles, Company A would need to sell 10,000 units of water bottles to break even. (viii) Only a limited

amount of information can be presented in a single break-even chart. If we have

to study the changes of fixed costs, variable costs and selling prices, a

number of charts will have to be drawn up. The hard part of running a business is when customer sales or product demand remains the same while the price of variable costs increases, such as the price of raw materials. When that happens, the break-even point also goes up because of the additional expense.

- In actual life of any business organisation, the operation undergoes
a continuous process of growth and expansion.

- “CVP the study of the effects on future profit of changes in
fixed cost, variable cost, sales price, quantity and mix”.

- The P/V graph is a simple and convenient way to show the extent to which profits are affected by changes in the factors that affect profit.
- However, the graph can be interpreted only within the relevant range of operations (i.e., the level of activity over which fixed costs are assumed to remain fixed).
- (1) In order to forecast profit accurately, it is essential
to know the relationship between profits and costs on the one hand and volume

on the other.

Aside from production costs, other costs that may increase include rent for a warehouse, increases in salaries for employees, or higher utility rates. In a cost-volume-profit graph, the break-even point is the sales volume where the total sales line intersects with the total costs line. The total cost line is the sum total of fixed cost ($3,000) and variable cost of $15 per unit, plotted for various quantities of units to be sold. “CVP the study of the effects on future profit of changes in

fixed cost, variable cost, sales price, quantity and mix”. The simplest form of the break-even chart, wherein total profits are plotted on the vertical axis while units sold are plotted on the horizontal axis. Additionally, if the variable cost per unit can be reduced, the P/V graph shows the additional profits that can be expected at any given sales volume.

## How to Generate a Break-Even Analysis

The break-even point (BE) is the amount of sales needed to earn zero profit — enough sales so that you don’t earn a loss, but insufficient sales to earn a profit. You can use a couple of different ways — graphs and formulas — to analyze where your break-even point falls. Once the break-even number of units is determined, the company then knows what sales target it needs to set in order to generate profit and reach the company’s financial goals.

- Break-even charts and P/V graphs are often used together to benefit from the advantages of both visualizations.
- The total revenue line is plotted, running from $0 at zero sales volume to $150,000 at a sales volume of 6,000 units at $25 per unit.
- Break-even analysis is a tool that can be used to demonstrate and calculate how much revenue is needed to make a certain amount of profit, assuming expenses remain constant.
- If your formula gives you units and you want dollars, multiply the number of units by the sales price.

Below Breakeven point level the firm will make losses, while above this level it will be making profits. This is so because that while the variable costs vary according to the variations in the volume or level of activity while the fixed costs do not change. For example, if unit selling prices, unit variable costs, and total fixed costs remain constant, the P/V graph can show how many units must be sold to achieve a target profit. Suppose that, as with the basketball example earlier in the chapter, a company sells its products for $15 each, with variable costs of $6 per unit and total fixed costs of $300.

## What is Break-Even Analysis?

The P/V graph is a simple and convenient way to show the extent to which profits are affected by changes in the factors that affect profit. (x) The chart becomes very complicated and difficult to

understand for a layman, if the number of lines or curves depicted on the graph

are large. (vii) Condition of

growth or expansion in an organisation are not assumed under break-even

analysis. In actual life of any business organisation, the operation undergoes

a continuous process of growth and expansion.

The vertical axis shows total profits or losses, while the horizontal axis represents units of product and sales revenue. The total revenue line is plotted, running from $0 at zero sales volume to $150,000 at a sales volume of 6,000 units at $25 per unit. The units sold are plotted on the horizontal axis, while total revenue is shown on the vertical axis.

## Connect With a Financial Advisor

(iv) The horizontal

axis cannot measure the units sold in as much as many unlike type of products

are sold by the same enterprise. A simpler version of the break-even chart is known as the profit-volume graph (P/V graph). This graph shows a direct relationship between sales and profits, and it is easy to understand. Analysis of cost-volume-profit relationship may assist in

formulating price policies to suit particular circumstances by projecting the effect

which different price structures have on costs and profits.

CVP is a budgeting process that can be used to establish the break-even point and the expected operating income of the business. To give an example, consider how the data in the table below have been used to create the break-even chart.

## Employ the formula approach to find the break-even point

(3) Cost-volume-profit analysis is of assistance in

performance evaluation for the purposes of control. For reviewing profits

achieved and cost incurred the effects on costs of changes in volume are required

to be evaluated. (2) Cost-volume-profit analysis is useful in setting up

flexible budgets which indicate costs at various levels of activity. If your formula gives you units and you want dollars, multiply the number of units by the sales price.

If your formula gives you dollars and you want units, just divide by the sales price. In cases where the production line falters, or a part of the assembly line breaks down, the break-even point increases since the target number of units is not produced within the desired time frame. Equipment failures also mean higher operational costs and, therefore, a higher break-even. Break-even analysis is often a component of sensitivity analysis and scenario analysis performed in financial modeling. Using Goal Seek in Excel, an analyst can backsolve how many units need to be sold, at what price, and at what cost to break even.

## What is a profit-volume graph?

Profitability may be increased when a business opts for outsourcing, which can help reduce manufacturing costs when production volume increases. Graphical analysis also enables managers to identify areas of profit or loss that would occur for a broad range of sales activities. (ix) Even simple

tabulation of the results of costs and sales can serve the purpose which is

served by a break-even chart, hence there is no need of presenting the data

through a break-even chart. (1) In order to forecast profit accurately, it is essential

to know the relationship between profits and costs on the one hand and volume

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