Income and expenditure Health & Social Care

expenditure and income

Households spent more in 2014 than they did in 1996, after adjusting for inflation; this holds whether the figures are based on averages (means) or medians. The typical household saw its expenditures grow by more than 25 percent, from $29,400 in 1996 to $36,800 in 2014. Mean expenditures grew 27 percent since 1996, rising from $43,200 to $54,800. Much of the growth occurred between 2012 and 2014, signaling a promising recovery from the Great Recession and the housing crisis. A budget deficit occurs when the current expenses are ___________ than the current income received through standard operations.

  • A budget deficit occurs when the current expenses are ___________ than the current income received through standard operations.
  • This can either be done by borrowing money from another country or, more commonly, by issuing treasury bonds and bills.
  • This report seeks to develop a clear picture of the current state of household financial security.
  • Current expenditure includes spending on goods and services that are consumed over a shorter period of time.

The main source of government revenue is taxation, including revenue from both ___________ and ___________ taxes. A budget deficit is a ___________ economic consequence whereas the national debt influences the economy in the long term. A budget surplus occurs when the current expenses are lower than the current income received through standard operations.

Other effects of taxes and spending

For example, accruing some debt at an early age can encourage wealth-building, but too much debt later in life can increase financial insecurity. This report provides a comprehensive look at the complex story of American debt—how families hold it, their attitudes toward it, and how it relates to their overall financial health. Given that non-trading organizations cannot prepare profit and loss accounts (i.e., as they do not operate to earn profits), the final account shows either a surplus or deficit.

Conversely, households in the bottom third, which had significantly less slack in their budgets, devoted very few resources to these two categories— about $128 a month. As the share of household income used for transportation increased, the amount going to various subcategories also grew. For all income groups, expenditures for gasoline and motor oil doubled between 1996 and 2014. These extreme cost increases force households to make difficult choices and trade-offs to meet core needs.

What is the difference between revenue and income?

By issuing these types of securities the government can continue to provide public services even when they do not earn enough tax revenues in a certain period. The three main types of government expenditure include spending on health, education, defence, and social protection (public services); transfer payments; and debt interest. Though systemic economic conditions, such as recessions or stock market changes, affect trends in consumer expenditures, individual households also make decisions about how to spend their discretionary dollars. In 2014, households across the income distribution spent much more on groceries than on eating out, but, predictably, those in the top third spent much more on food away from home than the other groups. Households at the top also spent more than others on entertainment, including pets and pet care, media equipment and services, admission to events such as movies or plays, and toys for children. Typical households at the top spent $380 a month on eating out and entertainment.

expenditure and income

High taxation rates can ___________ people from working more which decreases the supply of labour. Our mission is to empower readers with the most factual and reliable financial information possible to help them make informed decisions for their individual needs. Spending on education and skill training programs can improve labour ___________ and ___________ in the economy. The marginal tax rate is the rate of tax you pay on an additional unit or an additional £1 of income. Transfer payments are payments for which no goods or services are traded in return.


When the project implementation starts, Amira will use her income and expenditure budget to make decisions about spending money on different activities. Before she approves expenditure, she will check if there is enough money in her budget. She will monitor the project actual expenditure against what was estimated in the budget each month. This helps Amira and her team identify any differences in good time and take action to keep the project on track. Further, transportation costs increased in recent years for households at the bottom, while this spending was more stable for the other income groups.

This means households had less income to devote to wealth-building investments, such as short- and long-term savings, education, and life insurance. In 2004, the typical household in the lower third had a little less than $1,500 left over after accounting for annual outlays. Just 10 years later, this amount had fallen to negative $2,300, a $3,800 decline.

What is the difference between government revenue and government expenditure?

This could include salaries of public sector teachers, doctors, or heating costs of hospitals. From 2004 to 2008, median household income grew by only 1.5 percent,3 while median expenditures increased by about 11 percent. During that period, the expenditure-to-income ratio (the percentage of a household’s budget used for spending) jumped by 9 percent. As the recovery began, median household expenditures returned to pre-crisis levels, but median household income continued to contract. By 2014, median income had fallen by 13 percent from 2004 levels, while expenditures had increased by nearly 14 percent. This change in the expenditure-to-income ratio in the years following the financial crisis is a clear indication of why and how households feel financially strained.

Income taxes and national insurance contributions make up almost half of government revenue. Most of the tax revenue comes from direct taxes, including income tax, corporation tax, national insurance contributions, council tax, etc. However, indirect taxes like VAT and excise duty all form part of government tax revenues, in addition to other non-tax receipts. Figure 1 below outlines the different types of public sector receipts in the UK and the majority of them are various forms of taxes. Revenue or turnover is the total value of all final goods and services produced within an economy over a given period of time, such as yearly or monthly income is one aspect of financial flow. The other aspects are capital expenditures, depreciation and withdrawal of funds.

Household Expenditures and Income

On the other hand, merit goods like healthcare are often heavily subsidised by the government to encourage their consumption. Project Monitoring – it is essential to have information on your project’s financial situation to manage it effectively. Budget monitoring reports help us to assess the project’s performance compared to the plan (budget). Action may be needed to get things back on track if we are spending more or less than the budget. Project Planning – the Income and Expenditure budget is a foundation document for project planning, identifying the project resource requirements, anticipated costs and funding. Budgets are used to build an accurate picture of what an organization or a new project will cost to run and to help raise funds.